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PVP-I study #18 of 18
5/18 Early treatment study
Arefin et al., Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, doi:10.1007/s12070-021-02616-7 (Peer Reviewed)
Virucidal effect of povidone iodine on COVID-19 in the nasopharynx: an open-label randomized clinical trial
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RCT with 189 patients showing signficantly greater viral clearance with a single application of PVP-I. Authors recommend using PVP-I prophylactically in the nasopharynx and oropharynx. NCT04549376 [1].

Arefin et al., 5/18/2021, Randomized Controlled Trial, Bangladesh, Middle East, peer-reviewed, 9 authors.
risk of no virological cure, 78.9% lower, RR 0.21, p = 0.02, treatment 4 of 27 (14.8%), control 19 of 27 (70.4%), 0.6% nasal irrigation.
risk of no virological cure, 89.5% lower, RR 0.11, p < 0.001, treatment 2 of 27 (7.4%), control 19 of 27 (70.4%), 0.5% nasal irrigation.
risk of no virological cure, 52.6% lower, RR 0.47, p = 0.006, treatment 9 of 27 (33.3%), control 19 of 27 (70.4%), 0.4% nasal irrigation.
risk of no virological cure, 80.0% lower, RR 0.20, p < 0.001, treatment 5 of 27 (18.5%), control 25 of 27 (92.6%), 0.6% nasal spray.
risk of no virological cure, 64.0% lower, RR 0.36, p < 0.001, treatment 9 of 27 (33.3%), control 25 of 27 (92.6%), 0.5% nasal spray.
risk of no virological cure, 73.6% lower, RR 0.26, p < 0.001, treatment 29 of 135 (21.5%), control 44 of 54 (81.5%), all treatment vs. all control.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
All 18 studies
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