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00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Mohamed (RCT)0.14[0.01-2.21]viral+0/53/5RRCITreatmentControlChoudhury (RCT)0.12[0.03-0.50]death2/30317/303Guenezan (RCT)0.37[0.06-1.63]viral load1212Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%Early treatment0.15[0.05-0.48]2/32020/32085% improvementSeet (CLUS. RCT)0.55[0.38-0.80]severe case42/73564/619OT​1RRCITreatmentControlTau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%PEP0.55[0.38-0.80]42/73564/61945% improvementAll studies0.32[0.12-0.81]44/1,05584/93968% improvement4 povidone-iodine COVID-19 studiesc19pvpi.com 5/4/211 OT: comparison with other treatmentTau​2 = 0.37; I​2 = 38.8%; Z = 2.40 (p = 0.0082)Lower RiskIncreased Risk
 
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4/14
PEP Seet et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.04.035 (Peer Reviewed) severe case, ↓44.7%, p=0.05 Positive impact of oral hydroxychloroquine and povidone-iodine throat spray for COVID-19 prophylaxis: an open-label randomized trial
Prophylaxis RCT in Singapore with 3,037 low risk patients, showing lower serious cases, lower symptomatic cases, and lower confirmed cases of COVID-19 with all treatments (ivermectin, HCQ, PVP-I, and Zinc + vitamin C) compared to vitamin ..
3/17
Early Elzein et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.07.21252302 (Preprint) In vivo evaluation of the virucidal efficacy of Chlorhexidine and Povidone-iodine mouthwashes against salivary SARS-CoV-2
Small RCT comparing mouthwashing with PVP-I, Chlorhexidine, and water, showing both PVP-I and Chlorhexidine were effective, with PVP-I increasing Ct by a mean of 4.45 (p < 0.0001) and Chlorhexidine by a mean of 5.69 (p < 0.0001), compared..
3/15
Review Chopra et al., Japanese Dental Science Review, doi:10.1016/j.jdsr.2021.03.001 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Can povidone Iodine gargle/mouthrinse inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and decrease the risk of nosocomial and community transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic? An evidence-based update
Review discussing the rationale, safety, recommendations, and dosage of PVP-I gargle/mouthwash as an effective method to decrease the viral load of SARS-CoV-2.
3/1
In Vitro Xu et al., Pathogens, doi:10.3390/pathogens10030272 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Differential Effects of Antiseptic Mouth Rinses on SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity In Vitro
In Vitro study showing that PVP-I and other mouthwashes inactivated replication-competent SARS-CoV-2.
3/1
Early Jayaraman et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.02.25.21252488 (Preprint) Povidone iodine, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine mouthwashes reduce SARS-CoV2 burden in whole mouth fluid and respiratory droplets
Study of SARS-CoV2 burden in whole mouth fluid and respiratory droplets with povidone iodine, hydrogen peroxide, and chlorhexidine mouthwashes in 36 hospitalized COVID-19 patients using PCR and rapid antigen testing. There were significan..
2/4
Early Guenezan et al., JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg., doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2020.5490 (Peer Reviewed) viral load, ↓63.2%, p=0.25 Povidone Iodine Mouthwash, Gargle, and Nasal Spray to Reduce Nasopharyngeal Viral Load in Patients With COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
RCT of PCR+ patients with Ct<=20 with 12 treatment and 12 control patients, concluding that nasopharyngeal decolonization may reduce the carriage of infectious SARS-CoV-2 in adults with mild to moderate COVID-19. All patients but 1 had ne..
2/1
In Vitro Tucker et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.31.426979 (Preprint) (In Vitro) in vitro In vitro inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 with 0.5% povidone iodine nasal spray (Nasodine) at clinically relevant concentrations and timeframes using tissue culture and PCR based assays
In Vitro study showing that PVP-I eliminated the viability of SARS-CoV-2 with short exposure times. Authors find that PCR alone may not be adequate for viral quantification and recommend incorporating cell culture to assess viral viability.
1/3
Early Khan et al., American Journal of Otolaryngology, doi:10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102880 (Peer Reviewed) Tolerability and usability of 0.5% PVP-I gargles and nasal drops in 6692 patients: Observational study
Study of the use of PVP-I gargles and nasal drops before and after ENT examinations with a total of 6,692 patients, finding high usability and good tolerance for use. 21 patients (0.76%) reported an itching sensation in the nose on the f..
12/14
Early Seneviratne et al., Infection, doi:10.1007/s15010-020-01563-9 (Peer Reviewed) Efficacy of commercial mouth-rinses on SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva: randomized control trial in Singapore
Small mouthwash RCT with 4 PVP-I patients and 2 water patients concluding that PVP-I may have a sustained effect on reducing the salivary SARS-CoV-2 level in COVID-19 patients.
12/3
Early Choudhury et al., Bioresearch Communications, Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2021 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓88.2%, p=0.0006 Effect of 1% Povidone Iodine Mouthwash/Gargle, Nasal and Eye Drop in COVID-19 patient
RCT 606 patients in Bangladesh for povidone iodine mouthwash/gargle, nasal drops and eye drops showing significantly lower death, hospitalization, and PCR+ at day 7.
9/17
In Vitro Frank et al., JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2020.3053 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro In Vitro Efficacy of a Povidone-Iodine Nasal Antiseptic for Rapid Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2
In Vitro study showing povidone-iodine nasal antiseptics at concentrations (0.5%, 1.25%, and 2.5%) completely inactivated SARS-CoV-2 within 15 seconds of contact. No cytotoxic effects on cells were observed after contact with each of the ..
9/9
Early Mohamed et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.09.07.20180448 (Preprint) viral+, ↓85.7%, p=0.17 Early viral cleerance among COVID-19 patients when gargling with povidone-iodine and essential oils: a pilot clinical trial
Tiny RCT with 5 PVP-I patients, gargling 30 seconds, 3x per day, and 5 control patients (essential oils and tap water were also tested), showing improved viral clearance with PVP-I.
7/8
In Vitro Anderson et al., Infectious Diseases and Therapy, doi:10.1007/s40121-020-00316-3 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Povidone-Iodine Demonstrates Rapid In Vitro Virucidal Activity Against SARS-CoV-2, The Virus Causing COVID-19 Disease
In Vitro study showing rapid and effective virucidal activity of PVP-I against SARS-CoV-2. All four products tested [antiseptic solution (PVP-I 10%), skin cleanser (PVP-I 7.5%), gargle and mouth wash (PVP-I 1%) and throat spray (PVP-I 0.4..
7/2
Early Martínez Lamas et al., Oral Diseases, doi:doi.org/10.1111/odi.13526 (Peer Reviewed) Is povidone iodine mouthwash effective against SARS‐CoV‐2? First in vivo tests
Small study analyzing the impact of PVP-I mouthwash on the salivary viral load of SARS‐CoV‐2 in 4 patients with COVID‐19. In 2 of the 4 patients (those with a higher initial viral load), PVP‐I resulted in a significant drop in viral load,..
6/26
In Vitro Hassandarvish et al., British Dental Journal volume, doi:10.1038/s41415-020-1794-1 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Povidone iodine gargle and mouthwash
In Vitro study showing undiluted PVP-I (1% w/v) achieved >5 log10 reduction in SARS-CoV-2 virus titres at 15, 30 and 60 seconds treatment exposure under both clean and dirty conditions. In contrast, when PVP-I was tested at 1:2 dilution a..
6/18
Early Khan et al., Am J Otolaryngol, doi:10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102618 (Peer Reviewed) Repurposing 0.5% povidone iodine solution in otorhinolaryngology practice in Covid 19 pandemic
Study of the use of PVP-I gargles and nasal drops before ENT appointments finding good tolerability.
6/10
Safety Frank et al., Ear, Nose & Throat Journal, doi:10.1177/0145561320932318 (Peer Reviewed) safety analysis Povidone-Iodine Use in Sinonasal and Oral Cavities: A Review of Safety in the COVID-19 Era
Review of povidone-iodine finding that it can safely be used in the nose at concentrations up to 1.25% and in the mouth at concentrations up to 2.5% for up to 5 months.
6/8
In Vitro Bidra et al., Journal of Prosthodontics, doi:10.1111/jopr.13209 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Rapid In‐Vitro Inactivation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) Using Povidone‐Iodine Oral Antiseptic Rinse
In Vitro study showing PVP‐I rapidly inactivated SARS‐CoV‐2. Viricidal activity was present at the lowest concentration and contact time tested (0.5% PVP‐I and 15 seconds).
5/7
PrEP Mendoza et al., SSRN, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3589404 (Preprint) Prevention of COVID-19 Infection with Povidone-Iodine
Review of the antiviral efficacy of PVP-I and its potential use as a prophylactic on the oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal mucosa for COVID-19.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary; multiple approaches are required to cover all people and all existing and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC.
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